Frequently Asked Questions

(to see Answers, click on Questions)

 

Q 01: I have a problem not already explained here or in the support forum. Can you give me assistance?

A: Of course it is!

First, however, verify that your problem is present with the latest version of the Software and Firmware.

Then, you can write to us using the appropriate form, or you can send us an e-mail to customercare@msh-electronics.com, or you can write in the forum in the “Support” area so that other users can answer you and that the answer to your type of problem can then be useful to other users. Or you can use the special function of the Windows app “Support Request” which can be found in the Help menu or in the DIAGNOSTIC section.

In addition to explaining your problem in detail, to allow us to verify as much information as possible, you MUST attach it to your form or email or post:
a) The configuration file of the unit whose problem you are reporting (you can download it from the top left menu “File” with “Save config. to file …”). To allow us to also verify the correct configuration of the transmitter, while saving the configuration file the transmitter and receiver should be powered on and the sticks held both down and to the right at the end stop.
b) The EVENTS file of the unit whose problem you are reporting (you can download it by going to the DIAGNOSTIC section, selecting the “Events” tab and then with the “Save to file…” button at the bottom)
c) Any Recorded Log, possibly recent (you can download it by going to the DIAGNOSTIC section, selecting the “Recorded Logs” tab, then clicking on the “Download Data” button below and selecting a flight log. Finally click on the “Save to File…” button). It is preferable that the parameters recorded in the recorded logs are initially the default ones (they can be reset using the “Reset Logs to default …” command from the File menu)

NOTE: with the Android app the Files are saved in the “Download\Brain” folder of the device and can be copied, moved or emailed from there.
NOTE: with the iOS app the files are saved in the “Documents\BrainApp” folder of the device and can be copied, moved or emailed from there.

The “Support Request” function of the Windows app (found in the Help menu at the top or in the DIAGNOSTIC section) automatically extracts and attaches and sends us all the necessary files.

Thank you

 

Q 02: What should I set my tail gain to?
A: We recommend completing the wizard and starting with the recommended tail gain.

Note that the smaller the model tag, the lower the tail gain value.

As you fly the model, the recommended procedure, is:

  1. Turn off Pitch and Cyclic Precompensation.
  2. Find the maximum tail gain. High speed sideways flight, aileron loops, over-speeds. Find where the high-speed wag is, then back off 5 points.
  3. Do full collective punch-outs to assess how much the tail kicks. Increase the tail “I” gain 5 points at a time. Usually 10-15 points total max.
  4. Finally, add in “Pitch Precompensation” until the tail is completely locked in punch-outs. A value of 70 or so in “Pitch Precompensation” is not uncommon. Usually very little “Cyclic Precompensation” is needed (default is set to 10).
Q 03: Should I use software controlled tail gain vs. transmitter controlled?

A: As a general rule of thumb, setting the tail gain adjustment to be set by the transmitter on the default gyro channel for your transmitter is recommended. It allows for quick changes of tail gain dependent on flight conditions. However, if you are running a transmitter with less than eight channels, it is possible to set the gain to be software-set in order to free up a channel for an additional function such as rescue.

Q 04: Why does my tail wag, no matter what gain values I set?
A: In the majority of cases, we have found that tail wag is caused by mechanical problems in the tail or the tail command redirection that is hard for several reasons, such as:

  • unbalanced and/or chipped tail blades
  • thrust bearings that are incorrectly mounted
  • crooked tail rotor shafts
  • tail pulley is slipping

The tail rotor spins at four to five times the speed of the main rotor system so the centrifugal forces on the components are greater. As such, any imperfections are greatly magnified and translate into vibrations that are picked up by the Brain’s gyro sensors and translated as movement that needs correction. Additionally, the tail rotor servos are typically much faster than cyclic servos and make corrections much quicker – a wag could be a rapid correction and response to an unbalanced or mechanically rough system.

Please ensure that the tail pushrod is free and easy to move; a lot of tail wag problems have been corrected by a freely moving tail pushrod, especially on new helicopter builds.

Q 05: At the end of initialization the swashplate moves up and down ten/twelve times instead of the normal four, there is also the Event "Unit not level at startup." which warns that Auto Level & Rescue are disabled. Is there something wrong with my unit?
A: No, your unit is fine (If there were hardware problems there would be a specific Error Events).

As indicated by event n° 103 “Unit not level at startup. Check unit orientation: Auto level & rescue deactivated” the accelerometer assigned to the vertical axis of the model is not reading the normally expected Earth gravity value (~1g). For this reason the Auto Level and Rescue functions are temporarily disabled only for the current flight session, but apart from these two disabled functions the model can fly normally.

Here are some things you can check:
– As stated in panel n° 2 “Unit Orientation” of the Wizard, the flight control unit must be secured to the model and never left “hanging” by the cables during setup.
– Make sure you have selected in the panel n° 2 of the Wizard the actual real location of the unit as it is actually mounted on the model.
– Do not power on the model lying down or tilting it sideways, but make sure the helicopter is upright and resting on the skids BEFORE powering it on.
– Do not move the model until the swashplate and tail servos indicate the completion of testing and initialization.If there are also several consecutive “Deceleration >=16g” Events, one of the accelerometers is stuck.

It is not a problem of connections or soldering but is caused by the real nature of accelerometers that are microscopic electromechanical devices, if they repeatedly move up to their maximum excursion (accelerations of 16g or more) they can get stuck. This can happen as a result of a crash or very hard landing. It can also happen on internal combustion models when using the starter or during break-in with heavy carburetion if the mounting rules for this type of models have not been respected and the flight control unit touches against the chassis or the cables connected to the fligh control unit are stretched or a softer and spongier double-sided tape has not been used to attach the unit to the model as strictly required in the instructions. In this case (you also have many 111 events “Deceleration >=16g”) turn off the flight control unit and give the FCU case a sharp blow with the plastic handle of a screwdriver. This is enough to unlock the sensor. Then check again the positioning and mounting rules of the flight control unit.

Q 06: My unit is not powering on or being recognized by the software, how do I reset it?

A: It is almost never necessary to reset to factory default the unit.

If the red led is fixed on (it is not blinking), the unit is gone in Boot Loader Mode. Simply reflash the unit firmware using the Software. Connect the unit to the PC with the USB cable and launch the Software that automatically recognized the Boot Loader status and clicking on the Ok button send you directly to the firmware selection windows, select the firmware version that you want flash in the unit (usually the last higher version number) then click on the “OK” button to start the update process.

Instead if the unit’s LEDs do not light, there are four possible causes:
1) The ESC (which normally powers the unit) is either not powered or is an ESC without BEC or the throttle connector is not properly connected to the unit.
2) The Brains2 (not the old Brains) can also be powered by the USB cable without the risk of the motor starting or servos moves.
Note: Many USB phone charging cables do not have internal connections for data transmission and reception but only power cables. With these types of cables, the Brain2 are powered and the LEDs light up, but it is not possible to connect with the configuration software.
3) There is a short circuit in one of the servos, or in the receiver, or one of the cables has shorted with a carbon frame edge (carbon is conductive!).
4) A firmware update was abruptly interrupted without let ending regularly, disconnecting the USB cable or removing power or turning off the PC or shutting/killing the update software.

We suggest that you disconnect all the devices from the Brain2 control unit and to power it only from USB to check if the LEDs light up.
Check that the ESC is equipped with an internal BEC, otherwise, in addition to the ESC, a BEC powered by the same battery pack used by the ESC must also be mounted on the model.
Disconnect the USB cable and try to power the unit by the ESC (or by the separate BEC) to see if the LED’s light up. Then reconnect one device at a time to understand if and which one is short-circuited.
For “4)” download and read the “Recovery Procedure” in the Download area.

Q 07: What are the differences between the old Brain and new Brain2 units?

A: For some years now, we have not introduced any changes in the firmware of the old Brain / iKon / X-Bar / Trak-x flight control units due to the little processing power of the saturated CPU MIPS and the little saturated EEPROM memory where there is no more space to be able to add new routines.
Also, because the old Brain units are out of warranty as production and sales ended in 2015, and the last components purchased in 2014, specific components are now sold out so, we would not be able to perform repairs of old Brain units at reasonable prices.The project of the old flight control units started in 2009, much more than 10 years ago. Back then, the product was among the most powerful and innovative for the models that were in circulation at that time. Despite continued improvements its operation with continuous firmware updates with improvements and new features over the years, the hardware has now become insufficient for what has been the evolution of models, engines, lipo, ESCs, Blades, etc. An example for all: the main loop of the new flight control units runs at twice the speed compared to the old ones and therefore makes twice as many controls at the same time for a more fluid control of the model.

Advantage of new six Brain2 models over the old Brain:
– Logging of vibrations, rpm and up to other 10 user defined values in flight (including esc data for many esc’s) at up to 50Hz sampling rate.
– Log of the last 200 events.
– Real time logs during setup.
– QOS (Quality Of Signal) analysis for all protocols used that measures Frame Rate, Fades, Frame Losses and Holds and with some protocols also the RSSI value.
   (All these functions are essential to diagnose model problems and to easily optimize the setup at 100%.)
– Decoding of up to eight new receviers protocol (SRXL2, F.Port, S.Port, F.Bus, CRSF, M.Link, S.Bus2, i-Bus).
– Telemetry capabilities: for example, getting main pack mAh consumed (replaces timer), ESC temperature, main pack voltage, BEC voltage (and more) to your TX so you can set TX vibrations, sound, voices alarms on them. Of course, you need compatible hardware (Spektrum, Futaba, Jeti, Graupner, FrSky, Multiplex).
– 15% of RPM reduction at an adjustable mAh used value (for transmitters without telemetry) to alert of low remaining pack capacity.
– Spektrum integration: to adjust any parameter in Brain2 directly from the TX screen.
– Jeti integration: to adjust any parameter in Brain2 directly from TX screen.
– Graupner integration: to adjust any parameter in Brain2 directly from TX screen.
– OpenTX / EdgeTX integration: to adjust any parameter in Brain2 directly from TX Screen.
– ELRS / TBS Crossfire TX integration: to adjust any parameter in Brain2 directly from TX screen.
– In flight fine tuning: set up to 3 unused channels to fine tune a specific parameter in flight (for example Tail I gain or Gov. P gain) and memorize new value after landing with only simple stick movements.
– Ability to use Micro & Mini Brain2 on models with an electric motor-controlled tail.
– Also works on models with Tandem Rotors.
– Also works on models with Swashplate H-4 controlled by 4 servos.
– New Hi-End swashplate servos that operate with 560Hz refresh and 760uS pulses can also be used.
–  Capability to connect an external Variometer sensor to record in Flight Logs and also transmit by telemetry, relative altitude, absolute altitude, ascent/descent speed
– All functions can also be used on models with Flybar.
– The units now can power from the only USB inhibiting the Motor power and servos supply and movements. This is perfect for safe setup and safe download of flight logs and analysis. Also, for firmware updates. It sure is nice being able to plug in the cable and do updates without the need of a charged receiver pack.
– Added a standard servo connector for the governor port. So, from a Hobbywing / Castle Creation / Scorpion / YGE RPM-out connector no more additional wiring/accessory, needed.
   This allows you to connect also a second BEC connector to get more current available on the servo rail.
– The port for the external BT module was moved from the servo pins to the side. It is much more convenient, but also added two new versions (Std. & HD) with integrated Bluetooth.
– Different form factors: micro, mini, standard, HD with heavy duty BEC input w/ switch, integrated BT,
– Much more processing power. All routines are now working at the double of the speed compared to the old Brain1, so there is more time to complete all in less time and you can note this in a more fluid flight.
– Much more memory that allows us to continuously add new features through free firmware updates.

Q 08: How do I upgrade the firmware to get new features?

A: When a new firmware and/or software is released, by running the software the user is automatically notified of the existence of the new software which can be updated automatically by pressing the “OK” key or not updated by pressing the “Cancel” key.
Once the initialization of the software has been completed, if there is a new firmware to be loaded in the unit, also in this case the user is automatically notified of the existence of the new firmware which can be updated automatically by pressing the “OK” key or not updated by pressing the “Cancel” key.
We strongly advise against updating the software and not the firmware or vice versa not to update the software and update the firmware.

The firmware can also be updated manually (or downgraded the firmware) by clicking on the “File” menu at the top left of the software and selecting the item “Manual Firmware Upload …”.

Q 09: Do I have to update my firmware?

A: Absolutely!
We continuously spend a lot of time developing Windows Software, the Android app, the iOS app, and developing firmware to keep our units at the top of the game. All these updates are released completely free of charge.
Each new version always introduces several new features (which may not interest you for now), but are also continuous improvements on all the previous features, instructions and graphics (based on our new ideas but also based on requests and suggestions from end users) to continuously improve the experience of using our flight controllers.
It would be a real shame for you not to be able to take full advantage of the new versions.

Note: New software and firmware often add new parameters. It is for this reason that in order to use the new firmware it is necessary to use also the new software (both software and firmware must know how many and which are the parameters that are added).

For the sake of completeness, no assistance is provided for any problems or difficulties for those using old software and firmware (problems encountered and/or setup procedures may have been solved by new versions or procedures may be completely different).
Even regarding returns, they are not accepted if the units are not updated to the latest versions in which new diagnostic procedures and parameters are often added.

Q 10: What kind of RPM sensors work with the Brain2?

A: It depends on whether the motorization is electric or combustion.
Electric Models:
Almost all ESC brands and models (except the Kontronik) have a special output for the motor rotation impulses that just need to be connected directly to the Brain2 “GOV” input connector.
For those who have old ESCs without the output or use cheap ESCs without the motor rotation pulse output, a large number of sensors are available on the market which on one side have two wires that must be connected to any two cables of the motor and on the other side a connector that supplies the sensor and carries the motor rotation pulses and that it is sufficient to connect to the GOV port of the Brain2 control units.
There are also sensors with a single wire to be connected to a single motor cable like the Hyperion.
Attention to some sensors (such as Eagle Tree) where the type of connector must be changed from JST to Futaba / JR, but which have the red wire that corresponds to the ground/negative and the black wire that corresponds to the positive. In the JST connector supplied with the sensor the manufacturer has already taken this inversion into account, but when changing the connector type it must be taken into account.

Combustion models:
In this case the combustion models foresee the use of magnetic sensors with which magnets must be glued to the cooling fan (in this case before the clutch) or to the main gear (in this case after the clutch) and the sensor must be fixed to the mechanics of the model by placing it at a very small distance from the passage of the magnets (usually two sheets of paper are placed between the magnet and the sensor for the correct fixing / tightening of the sensor to the model.
Also, in this case, pay attention to some types of sensors, such as Align, that have the red wire that corresponds to the ground/negative and the black wire that corresponds to the positive.
Then there are the “backplate” sensors to be fixed to the bottom of nitro engines. They do not work however with some engine that have a non-magnetic material connecting rod (for example some YS engines), moreover often it is necessary to find the correct position using spacer washers for correct readings, and furthermore they prevent the classical thermal measurement by inserting a finger on the bottom of the engine that allows to understand if the carburation is too lean (the bottom is hot) or too rich (the bottom is cold).

Q 11: I crashed my helicopter; how do I know my Brain2 unit is safe to fly again?

A: The new Brain2 flight control units have an advanced self-diagnostic system that is executed at each new power on of the unit.
If, during the tests, some hardware problems should be found, the flight control unit does not complete the initialization, does not start and does not allow the model to be flown. The red led emits more than three flashes indicating the type of hardware error.
Then there are reports following the POST (Power On Self Test) signaled by different movements of the swashplate that could indicate setup problems, transmitter setup or problems in the gravity readings by the accelerometers. But whatever this second type of signaling may be, once the transmitter configuration problems have been corrected, the model can be safely flown (if there were problems with the accelerometer readings, Auto Level and Rescue which are the only functions that they use it are automatically deactivated for that power on of the unit until the next test of the next power on of the unit, but unit can fly without problems)

Q 12a: I fly scale helicopters, how do I configure retractable landing gear?

A: For this purpose, it is possible to use the output on the CH2 connector of the Brain2 which corresponds to the Brain2 B-Aux2 . Normally the Brain2 B-Aux2 is pre-assigned to channel 8 of the transmitter (but you can change channel in the ADVANCED section).
If a battery or BEC is already connected to the CH2 connector, just use a “Y” cable to continue using that as a voltage input.
In case the B-Aux2 output is already used for other functions (or not present as in the Micro Brain2), it is possible to use the B-Aux3 output whose output signal is present on the CH4 pin of the CH4-5-6 connector while the power supply must be obtained by taking it through a “Y” splitter connected on one of the other connectors of the flight controller. You must then in ADVANCED => Common => Receiver assign to the B-Aux3 function a free radio channel not already used for other functions (by default no radio channel is assigned to B-Aux3).
Note: These outputs do not correspond to an ON/OFF signal but to a PWM signal.
Depending on the mechanics and the type of servo used, using CH2 output it may be necessary to adjust in ADVANCED the center position of the servo used for retractable landing gear by bringing it to the maximum (or minimum) position so that short movements do not occur at power on and off.

Q 12b: I would like to install the SwitchGlo Pro / Simprop Glow Star on the Brain2.

A: For this purpose (SwitchGlo Pro / Simprop Glow Star / Push Glo / Rev Glow / Xglow Pro), it is possible to use the output on the CH2 connector of the Brain2 which corresponds to the Brain2 B-Aux2 . Normally the Brain2 B-Aux2 is pre-assigned to channel 8 of the transmitter (but you can change channel in the ADVANCED section).
If a battery or BEC is already connected to the CH2 connector, just use a “Y” cable to continue using that as a voltage input.
In case the B-Aux2 output is already used for other functions (or not present as in the Micro Brain2), it is possible to use the B-Aux3 output whose output signal is present on the CH4 pin of the CH4-5-6 connector while the power supply must be obtained by taking it through a “Y” splitter connected on one of the other connectors of the flight controller. You must then in ADVANCED => Common => Receiver assign to the B-Aux3 function a free radio channel not already used for other functions (by default no radio channel is assigned to B-Aux3).
Note: These outputs do not correspond to an ON/OFF signal but to a PWM signal.

Q 12c: I would like to be able to activate a buzzer from the transmitter in case the model should fall into a field so, I can find it again

A: For this purpose, it is possible to use the output on the CH2 connector of the Brain2 which corresponds to the Brain2 B-Aux2 . Normally the Brain2 B-Aux2 is pre-assigned to channel 8 of the transmitter (but you can change channel in the ADVANCED section).
If a battery or BEC is already connected to the CH2 connector, just use a “Y” cable to continue using that as a voltage input.
In case the B-Aux2 output is already used for other functions (or not present as in the Micro Brain2), it is possible to use the B-Aux3 output whose output signal is present on the CH4 pin of the CH4-5-6 connector while the power supply must be obtained by taking it through a “Y” splitter connected on one of the other connectors of the flight controller. You must then in ADVANCED => Common => Receiver assign to the B-Aux3 function a free radio channel not already used for other functions (by default no radio channel is assigned to B-Aux3).
Note: These outputs do not correspond to an ON/OFF signal but to a PWM signal.

Q 12d: I wish I could activate the night flight lights from the transmitter.

A: For this purpose, it is possible to use the output on the CH2 connector of the Brain2 which corresponds to the Brain2 B-Aux2 . Normally the Brain2 B-Aux2 is pre-assigned to channel 8 of the transmitter (but you can change channel in the ADVANCED section).
If a battery or BEC is already connected to the CH2 connector, just use a “Y” cable to continue using that as a voltage input.
In case the B-Aux2 output is already used for other functions (or not present as in the Micro Brain2), it is possible to use the B-Aux3 output whose output signal is present on the CH4 pin of the CH4-5-6 connector while the power supply must be obtained by taking it through a “Y” splitter connected on one of the other connectors of the flight controller. You must then in ADVANCED => Common => Receiver assign to the B-Aux3 function a free radio channel not already used for other functions (by default no radio channel is assigned to B-Aux3).
Note: These outputs do not correspond to an ON/OFF signal but to a PWM signal.

Q 12e: I'd like to use a servo to control the carburation of my internal combustion engine in flight.

A: For this purpose, it is possible to use the output on the CH2 connector of the Brain2 which corresponds to the Brain2 B-Aux2 . Normally the Brain2 B-Aux2 is pre-assigned to channel 8 of the transmitter (but you can change channel in the ADVANCED section).
If a battery or BEC is already connected to the CH2 connector, just use a “Y” cable to continue using that as a voltage input.
In case the B-Aux2 output is already used for other functions (or not present as in the Micro Brain2), it is possible to use the B-Aux3 output whose output signal is present on the CH4 pin of the CH4-5-6 connector while the power supply must be obtained by taking it through a “Y” splitter connected on one of the other connectors of the flight controller. You must then in ADVANCED => Common => Receiver assign to the B-Aux3 function a free radio channel not already used for other functions (by default no radio channel is assigned to B-Aux3).
Note: These outputs do not correspond to an ON/OFF signal but to a PWM signal.

Q 14: Which Brain2 unit is right for me?

A: The choice depends on:
1) Type of engine (electric or combustion)
2) The size of the model and the connectors of the servos mounted on the model.

For combustion models (Nitro / Gasser) it is better to use one of the two “HD” versions with or without built-in Bluetooth (however, an external Wireless module can be added later, but at a higher final cost and weight due to the case, stiker, screws, connector, power LED, voltage regulator and connection cable with two connectors).
The HD (Heavy Duty) models have a special connector to which connect a Lipo 2S (all the servos must be HV) or a LiFe 2S (for non-HV servos), equipped with an electronic safety switch (if the switch breaks or disconnects from the Brain2 or a wire of the switch breaks the control unit remains powered).

For micro models, due to the evident smaller space and for weight reasons, it is advisable to use the Micro Brain2 which uses JST connectors for the servos normally used in micro models. The Micro Brain2 can also directly control an electric tail motor.

For all other models, Brain2 can be used with or without built-in Bluetooth (however, an external Wireless module can be added later, but at a higher final cost and weight due to the case, stiker, screws, connector, power LED, voltage regulator and connection cable with two connectors).

Or the Mini Brain2 which has a slightly smaller size but can also be used on large models’ class 800. Due to its small size, it does not have a high speed USB on board (useful to download flight logs in a short time) but is supplied with a remote USB that can be mounted on the model in any position or can be replaced by a Wireless dongle for wireless connections (to be purchased separately).

Q 15: I'm trying to bind Spektrum satellites and/or receiver, but I'm having trouble. What am I doing wrong?

A: you can do it either via software (Windows, Android, iOS) or via hardware (CH4-5-6) as you like. It’s up to you. With the first solution you can read the instructions and messages provided by the apps that help and guide you in the process, with the second solution you already need to know how to do the procedure.

Software: Select the checkbox “Spektrum Bind” at the bottom of the “Receiver selection” page of the Wizard

Hardware: Use the bind plug supplied with your transmitter or the bind plug supplied with each one of your receivers and insert it into the CH4-5-6 Brain2 connector.

Just remember that:
– You need to cycle power to the unit and to do so you also need to disconnect the USB cable that powers the unit.
– Once the satellites and/or the receiver have been set in to bind mode (fast led blink) by the Brain2, the binding process is managed by the transmitter only and by the satellite/receiver only and must be done by staying with the transmitter at a distance of about 2.5/3.5 meters from the satellite/receiver.

NOTE 1: For unidirectional receivers (standard receiver or serial receiver with unidirectional SRXL signal), you must put the bind plug directly into the receiver.

NOTE 2: Powering the flight control unit from USB will power the satellites and put them into bind mode, but the front servo rail is not powered by USB, so any receiver (telemetric or non telmetric) connected to the front connectors will not be powered. Therefore, in order to bind the satellites and receiver together, you must re-power the flight control unit from the ESC/BEC connected to the servo rail instead of the USB.

Q 16: Why are the new SPM46XX receivers for Spektrum telemetry recommended over the ARXXXXT telemetry receiver or my old TM1000 module?

A: Simply because neither the TM1000 module nor the ARXXXT telemetry receivers are able to directly decode and interpret the telemetry data transmitted by modern ESCs as instead Brain2 can receive by a simple wire between ESC and Brain2, which translates them and then sends them to the SPMXXXX receivers on the same bus from which it receives the radio signals. of the channels.
As a result you should buy and install a current sensor, a voltage sensor, a temperature sensor, an RPM sensor and spend a lot of money, adding weight to the model, creating a tangle of cables, and in the end you would NOT have anyway all the data that you would have with the telemetry managed by Brain2 (for example you would not have the “internal” temperature of the ESC mosfets, but only the “external” one so, receive temperature alarm too late due to propagation time, you would not have the percentage of power supplied by the ESC to evaluate if the gear ratio is correct, you wouldn’t have the ripple size to evaluate if the “C” of your battery is sufficient, and you would not have the BEC current [only some ESC] to evaluate mechanical binding during flight,).

In addition to this, ARxxxxT receivers have unidirectional communication between receiver and Brain2 and it is therefore not possible to activate and use Spektrum Integration (Creation on the screen of the menu transmitter with which to display and/or modify the values of all Brain2 control unit parameters).

Another issue is the redundancy of physical connections.
With SPM receivers and two satellites connected to the flight controller there are three physical connections (cables/connectors) and if one or even two of the three connections fail you do not risk losing control of the model.
With satellites connected to ARxxxxT receivers the connection to the flight controller is unique and if even one of the contacts of the two connectors or even one of the three wires fail or signal  wire shorts against a corner of the carbon frame, you would have the total loss of control of the model.

Q 18: In the Events I have many "Rudder output limit reached", why? How I can solve this issue?

A: This happens when the pilot requires with the tail or cyclic stick that the model makes a rotation at a speed that the current mechanical and aerodynamic configuration of the model is not able to reach: maximum command sent to the servo.
EG: If during a hard punch out or other extremely aggressive pitch change, the Brain2 already sends the maximum command to the tail servo and the tail rotor pitch reaches the maximum possible pitch before binding, there is no Brain2 parameter that can further increase the Brain2 output signal.
Therefore, before unnecessarily modifying the Brain2 parameters, check in the Flight Logs and/or in the events if the TailOut signal reaches its maximum and if “Rudder Output Limit reached” messages appear in the Events.
If many of these messages appear (more than two or three that can be normal) then it is necessary to intervene on the mechanics of the model.
1) Check that the tail servo limits are correctly adjusted.
2) Increase the tail gear ratio if there is a tail pulley for your model supplied by the model manufacturer that increases the speed of rotation.
3) Use longer tail blades (check before that longer tail blades can not go to touch the main rotor blades during the maximum flapping).
4) If you fly at very low rpm of the main rotor (which is a very common fashion in recent times), a tail rotor with 2 blades may be insufficient and you may need to switch to a tail rotor with 3 blades.
5) In Advanced => Setup => Tail, the maximum value of “Tail Rotation Speed” is too high for the model in the actual configuration. Simply reduce it.

Q 19: Setting up a unit but when I apply pitch, in the "Transmitter setup" page the aileron and elevator moves as well. Any ideas on what to correct?

A: You have activated a CCPM mixer in your transmitter. Channels must not mix in the transmitter. Don’t select any CCPM in the transmitter, the CCPM mixer job is done by the Brain2 at a higher speed and resolution than that of the transmitter. Set your transmitter to “normal” or “single servo”, swash type, no CCPM mixing from transmitter at all.

Q 20: I would like to add a backup system for the power supply but on the Brain2 there are no available connectors left.

A: Any backup system can be connected to the Brain2: Optipower UltraGuard, Pulse Ultra defender, Scorpion BUG, R2 Capacitor Bank, Buffer Pack for Kontronik ESC’s (Lipo 2S), or others.
Normally these systems can be connected to the CH2 connector of the Brain2 or “in the” GOV connector if the “-” and the “+” of the connector that carries the RPM pulses are free.
Otherwise, if the receiver has connectors for free servos, just connect to these connectors.
Or just use a “Y” cable connected to any of the flight control unit connectors (except the CH4-5-6 connector).

Q 21: After the update to Android 9 (Pie) of my smartphone/Tablet I'm no more able to connect with the unit.

A: This problem is caused by the new version Android 9 (Pie) released in some country and for some devices that for Bluetooth pairing now requires that in the Bluetooth the “Hands Free Protocol” (HFP) is also active even if it is not used by our application but is necessary only for Google Home devices / Amazon echo devices / etc. or on cars (the cars market is certainly much wider than our small niche market).

Step by Step Solution:
Prerequisite: Update the Windows software and then the unit’s firmware at least to the version 3.2.050. Also update the Android app at least to the version 3.2.050.

For Brain2 (with internal or external Bluetooth) or Brain2 HD (with internal or external Bluetooth):
1) Connect the unit to the PC using a USB cable. If Bluetooth is not internal but external (dongle) it must be connected to the SYS port of the unit.
2) With Brain2 there is no need to power the ESC and/or BEC and therefore the motor, because the unit and Bluetooth are both already powered by USB.
3) In the “File” menu (top left) select the “Bluetooth module configuration” item.
4) Fill in the PIN and NAME boxes (you can also enter the same PIN and NAME used previously) and press the “Write” button.
5) During the transmission of the Brain to Bluetooth (internal or external) of the configuration data of the baud rate, of the PIN, of NAME and of the new activation of the HFP protocol, the waits for the storage of the data in the Bluetooth module and the reception of the various confirmations, the unit will remain blocked for about 6 seconds.
6) Remove power from unit by disconnecting the USB cable. Then power on again.
7) From the Bluetooth Android setup, un-pair the previous Bluetooth, turn off Bluetooth on your phone, turn Bluetooth back on your phone and re-pair the Brain’s Bluetooth.
This time you will see (gear icon) that the paired unit also has an active headset icon. You can also turn it off. The important thing is that it is recognized and present.

Now the Brain app should work on your device with Android 9 (Pie).

Q 22: I'm testing the telemetry on the bench but I have no istantaneous current value nor consumed current.

A: As explained in the “Telemetry” PDF instructions (under MANUALS section), some ESC don’t have the hardware for the current measuration (EG: Hobbywing models below 70A,  Castle creation Talon’s).

Many ESC don’t measure low current values when below 6/8 Amp. On bench without main blades and tail blades on a well free mechanics the current absobed by motor is far below these values. You can start to read current value only when main blades and tail blades are mounted and you fly.

Q 23: I'm not able to activate the Spektrum Integration.

A: First, as a verification that the telemetry configuration is correct and is working, in the telemetry pages of the transmitter you must also be able to see the following screen (otherwise you will need to reconfigure the telemetry):

Spektrum Integration Start

Then it is necessary to verify that the end points (limit switch / ATV) of the transmitter are correctly adjusted and that when the sticks are put in Spektrum Integration activation position, the flight control unit sees the various values provided (-100%, 0, +100%).

Connect to the software, go to the “Transmitter Setup (Input)” panel 5, move the sticks in Spektrum Integration activation position and check in the right column that the same values are present as in the below image:

Brain2 Spektrum Integration

Check that with throttle hold the pitch curve reaches -100%.

We remember here that the transmitter sticks should not be moved at all until the flight controller has completed its initialization by establishing the actual center positions of the aileron, elevator and tail sticks each time.

Side Note: With flybarless models, in order to slow down the maximum rotational control rates, the maximum excursion of the transmitted radio channels should NEVER be reduced (dual rate) by losing the resolution and precision of the controls. Excursions of digital channels should be kept to the maximum depending on the maximum number of bits transmitted by the various radio models (1024, 2048, 4096).
Instead, to reduce the maximum rotational speeds one must reduce the values of the “Max Rotational Speed” parameters, which in the Brain2 flight controllers are found in ADVANCED, Setup tab, Cyclic and Tail sections.

Q 24: How can I set fail safe values like I do on my planes

A: Unlike aircraft that are self-stable, RC heli are inherently unstable.
Therefore, levelling the swashplate during a Fail Safe does not in any way straighten the model.
A Fail Safe that changes control surface positions can be useful in RC Aircraft.
It could cause major problems in RC heli and become dangerous:
If Fail Safe were momentary, it would cause changes in direction and unwanted jolting of the model.
(this is also the main reason why we do not automatically activate the Auto Level function in case of Fail Safe)
Unlike aircrafts, RC Helis also have a sustenance pitch control, and if the model were in reverse flight (in addition to normal reverse flight, for example, during looping or tonneaux), moving the pitch from negative to positive would cause the model to crash faster and much more violently with more energy and resulting damage.
If the RC heli is doing a hurricane in front of the pilot, changing the pitch from negative to positive or the aileron and elevator controls would cause the hurricane to go out of the hurricane’s circle with the possibility that the model without more control will go against the pilot or spectators.
Etc. etc.
There is countless flight situations of an RC heli where the change of position of the swashplate would cause the exit from its current trajectory with consequent risks to the safety of the pilot, spectators and things.
The only thing that reduces the risks, energy and violence of an impact is to remove kinetic energy from the rotors and bring the throttle to zero.
According to all this, Brain controllers have always kept the last valid command received (hold) without modifying it and remove the throttle when used on heli RC in case of Fail Safe.

Note to EdgeTX / OpenTX users: The “No Signal” setting of Fail Safe does not actually remove the output signal from the receivers as you might think from the name, but rather takes all commands to -115% and then activates the Fail Safe flag. So never use this Fail Safe setting with OpenTX but use the “Holds” setting.

Always check what happens to the swashplate by turning off the transmitter. The swashplate must not move.

Q 25: Is there a Mac OS software ?

A: Who deals with RC modeling seriously, well knows that in this sector there are dozens and dozens of necessary or useful programs that run only on Windows PC (Castle Creation ESC’s, Revoletrix chargers, Hyperion devices, Graupner Studio, Spektrum TLM telemetry files viewers, Software for ESC’s, RX’s, TX’s firmware update, LogView, Some of the best flight simulators, Flybarless controllers, etc. etc.).
For this reason who has been modeling for some time and has only PC MAC, uses Windows emulators for MAC (as suggested also by other brands / manufacturers).

There are many types, some of them free:
– Parallels Desktop
– VMware Fusion
– Boot Camp (Apple)
– Oracle VM VirtualBox(free)

We refer you for example to a recent pool on HeliFreak to know which is the most used and widespread, the answers are few because there are few modelers who have only PC MAC:
Windows Emulators for MAC Pool

However, it is worth taking the time to install a Windows emulator because it certainly gives you more flexibility and many other opportunities even in areas other than RC.

Otherwise, for those who do not want to use an emulator or are not able to install and use it, there is the iOS app for Apple smartphones (iPhone) and/or tablets (iPad).If you have a new MAC with M1 processor and last MAC OS you can now directly run our app for iOS iPhone / iPad devices.

The same applies to PCs with Linux (or derivative) operating systems for which there are, as for MAC, various Windows emulators: Cygwin, Hyper-V, VirtualBox, andLinux, QEMU, VMware Workstation, MESS, JPC, Wubi, TopologiLinux, Bochs, JSLinux, coLinux, bhyve, Parallels Workstation, etc. etc.

Finally, we would like to remind you that those who use Spektrum, Jeti, EdgeTX, OpenTX, Ethos, Graupner, TBS, ELRS radio systems can use the Integrations (menus displayed on the screens of the transmitters through which you can change all the parameters of the flight control units) at the airfield. Integrations are already included for free in our flight controllers: Integrations

Q 26: I want to use a Spektrum SPM4650/51T telemetry receiver, however the connector is a four-pin micro JST. How do I connect it to Brain2?

A: You can order this accessory: https://www.horizonhobby.com/srxl-v2-rx-to-servo-male—female-to-female-cable-p-spma3066 (required also for RX firmware updates and to activate the warranty by registering the receiver on the My Spektrum website).

Otherwise, You can do it yourself:

Simply cut away one of the two JST connectors from the cable supplied with the receiver, remove the useless grey wire that is connected to the Not Connected (N/C) pin of the receiver:

SPM4649T connector

insert three 1.5cm heat-shrink tubes on each of the three wires, take one female to female servo cable (like that supplied with our units), cut away one of the two connectors, splice the black wires (GND), splice the orange/red wires (V+) and finally splice the brown/white wires (Signal). Solder all this for safety, and protect the exposed and soldered parts of the wires with the previously positioned heat shrink tubes. Heat the heat-shrink tubes with a hairdryer.

Done:

4651T Cable for Brain2

4651T Cable for Brain2

4651T Cable for Brain2

If you want to have radio channels redundancy, just add on SAT1 and/or SAT2 connectors one or two DSMX standard SPM9745 (or SPM9746) DSMX satellites. It is not required or intended to use on SAT1 & SAT2 new SRXL2 remote Receivers (SPM9747) which, unlike DSMX satellites, has no antenna to be placed outside the edges of the carbon frames of our models and therefore would remain completely shielded when the model is rotated and to which you need to update the firmware.

Since this receiver has recently replaced the previous Spektrum telemetry receivers, are still frequently released firmware updates that improve and fix their operation, so to update the receiver’s firmware you will also need the following cable:
https://www.horizonhobby.com/product/transmitter-receiver-programming-cable-usb-interface/SPMA3065.html
It is critical that receivers are updated to the latest version of Spektrum firmware to avoid unwanted engine shutdowns while in flight (even when using additional satellites as redundancy!).

For Micro Brain2 it is even simpler (no need for a soldering iron and no need for heat-shrinkable insulation tubes).
Take any spektrum satellite cable. Remove the three wires and their contacts from the three-pin JST plastic connector by lifting the plastic contact locking tabs.
Take the cable supplied with the SPM4651T receivers, which has two four-pin JST connectors on both sides, from one of the two plastic JST four-pin connectors pull out the four wires and their contacts by lifting the plastic locking tabs.
Now insert the black wire contact (GND) in the centre of the previously recovered three-pole JST connetotor, then insert the red/orange wire (V+) in the hole on the left of the plastic connector JST and insert the brown wire (Signal) in the hole on the right of the plastic connector JST.
At this point you can remove the unnecessary grey wire connected to the NC contact from the 4-pole JST connector. You can cut the wire to leave the contact in the connector to increase the mechanical seal or you can remove the wire together with the contact by lifting the plastic locking tab.

SPM4651T cable for MicroBrain2

SPM4651T cable for MicroBrain2

SPM4651T cable for MicroBrain2

Note: The error we encounter most frequently is that users instead of selecting the correct Spektrum SRXL2 protocol icon, mistakenly select the Spektrum SRXL icon. As a result, radio signals are received from any satellites connected in the SAT1 / SAT2 ports but the SRXL2 protocol signal from the receiver is not decoded and therefore telemetry does not work and neither can the receiver’s “Bind Mode” activate by the Flight Control Unit.

Q27: What is the difference between USB Remote with red led and green led?

A: The “Remote USB” with red led were produced for the old “Micro Brain” control units (not “2”) and the old “Brain” control units (not “2”) and did NOT power the flight control units that had to be powered by the front connectors.
They were supplied as standard with the old “Micro Brain” (not “2”).

The old “Remote USB” with red led for the old control units are no longer produced.

The new “Remote USB 2” with green led are produced for the six models of the new Brain2 control units (they are supplied as standard together with the “Micro Brain2” and “Mini Brain2” models that do not have the USB “on Board”) and POWER internally the flight control units (but the servos and receivers are not powered because the internal voltage of the Brain2 control unit family does not go on the front connectors).

To use the new USB Remote 2 on the old models of control units (not “2”) you must necessarily power the old control units before connecting the USB to the PC.
Otherwise the USB of the PC should also power the servos, receiver and other things connected to the front connectors of the old control units and the current of the PC USB may be insufficient and the output voltage of the PC USB may drop too low.
The power supply voltage used to power the old flight control unit may also be different and higher than the 5V voltage of the PC’s USB.

Q28: When I try to activate the Auto Level on the bench with motor off, the swshplate moves all to one side.

A: This, as already explained in the instructions, is caused by an incorrect setup.

When the Auto Level takes control of the model and replaces the pilot stick movements, the Auto Level moves the swshplate with predetermined controls for right, left, forward and backward.
It is for this reason that in the “transmitter setup (Input)” panel of the Wizard, when moving the sticks, the elevator and aileron sliders (not the servos) must move in the same directions used by the Auto Level as indicated by the panel text. If not, reverse the channel in the transmitter.

If, in the next “Swashplate setup (Output)” panel of the Wizard, a user has made a mistake reversing the Output signals, they must not reverse the channel directions in the transmitter to make the swashplate move properly and fly in this way, but must continue to press the “reverse” button again until the servos move in the correct direction.

If this is done wrong, the model will still be able to fly (even if not well) because the double reversing first the input signal and then the output signal is equal to no final reversing, but when the autolevel replaces the pilot’s controls and sends the controls in the correct directions, the reversed outputs will cause the model to tip over and crash to the ground.

If with the reverse button pressed several times you can never correct the direction of the swashplate movement, then you must check the connections of the servos 1, 2, 3 to the flight control unit, for example the two that control the aileron movement of the swashplate, whose connections to the flight control unit have most likely been swapped compared to what is clearly indicated in the swashplate drawing that appears in the same “Swashplate Setup” panel where you reverse the servos of the swashplate.

If, after verifying that the connections of servos 1, 2 and 3 are correct, you still cannot move the swashplate in the correct direction, check that you have not mistakenly selected the trailing edge blade checkbox on a model with leading edge controlled blades, thinking to correct the movement of the swashplate in this way. Finally, if during the auto level bench test tilting the model the swshplate tilts instead of staying parallel to ground, then it means that the position of the unit selected in the “Unit Orientation” panel does not correspond to the real position where it was mounted on the model.

Q29: What do the parameters Fades, Frame Losses, Hold and Frame Rate mean, which can be logged in the flight control units or transmitted telemetrically?

A: Fades – represent the loss of a bit of information on that specific recever (A) o satellites (B, L). Typically it’s normal to have as many as 150 antenna fades on any one receiver / satellites during a 10 minutes flight. If any single antenna experiences over 500 fades in a single flight, the receiver / satellite antenna should be repositioned in the aircraft to optimize the RF link. Frame losses, can also be caused by electrostatic discharges that form if the tail mechanics are electrically isolated from the frame.

Frame Loss – represents simultaneous receiver and satellite fades on all attached receivers. If the RF link is performing optimally, frame losses per flight should be less than 20.

Hold – a hold occurs when 45 consecutive / contiguous (one right after the other) frame losses occur. This takes about one second at 22ms, and half second at 11ms. If a hold occurs during flight, it’s important to re-evaluate the system, moving the receiver / satellite antennas to different locations and/or checking to be sure the transmitter and receivers are working correctly and that the supply voltage is stable and sufficiently clean and that the tail mechanics are electrically connected to the main frame.

FrameRate: is the time in milliseconds between the reception of a valid frame and the reception of the next valid frame. Normally the time between one frame and the next is constant (only with Jeti’s EX Bus protocol in case a frame to be transmitted is identical to the previous one already transmitted, the new frame is not transmitted to reduce RF emission and consumption) In case a frame does not reach the flight controller or the received frame is invalid, then the value of FrameRate increases. The lower the FrameRate, the better. If the Frame Rate is constant (except for very small variations) it means that there has been no loss of the received signal from the flight controller, otherwise if there is frame loss, the FrameRate increases.

These parameters are not calculated by the receivers but by the flight control unit so as to also take into account any noise on the receiver connection cables (crosstalk) and false contacts on the receiver connectors and flight control unit connectors and electrostatic discharges.

Q30a: Why is it not possible to adjust the positive travel of the collective pitch independently of the negative travel via configuration software?

A: Implementing this capability would be extremely simple and fast for us (only one line of code). However, we want users flying our flight control units to fly as well as possible.
Correcting and hiding an incorrect mechanical setup by too easily and too quickly adjustment of the collective pitch asymmetry via software could then cause major problems in proper cyclic pitch operation and model control.
In fact, incorrect adjustment of the mechanics geometry can cause large interactions of the cyclic pitch on the collective pitch.
As everyone knows, the best model performance is achieved only when the mechanics adjustment is done correctly.
As can be easily guessed, “hiding” an incorrect mechanical setup through the flight control unit firmware would result in worse model performance and worse control accuracy and linearity. Electronic correction of an incorrect mechanical setup may cause cyclic pitch asymmetries and not eliminate possible interactions between collective pitch and cyclic pitch, causing imperfect model behavior in flight.
For this precise reason, we leave users as the only option, to correct the cyclic pitch symmetry by correcting the geometry of the mechanics as best as possible, by changing the center position of the servo horns, the position of the swashplate, and the link lengths.
Only after correcting this, and completing the initial setup, will users be able to modify the collective pitch excursions in their transmitters as they wish, intervening on the limits to modify any kind of asymmetry and/or creating special pitch curves.

As a reminder, to eliminate possible interactions between cyclic pitch control and collective pitch, with the pitch control at zero on the transmitter and Check Mode enabled (panels 8 and 9 of the App Wizard or special checkbox in Advanced and in integrations), the servo horns must all be perfectly 90° to the main shaft (not 90° to the links). In order to bring the swashplate horizontal and the blade incidence to zero, only the lengths of the links (of the swashplate or of the blade holders, but also remembering that the anti-rotation pin of the swashplate must be near the center of the pin guide itself) must be affected.

Q30b: Why compared with other flight controllers is there no an Auto Trim function?

A: Auto Trim of the swashplate is designed for newbies who do not yet know how to configure their model and can barely do hovering.
Since no controller is able to lengthen or shorten the linkages that go from the servos to the swashplate, the only chance left for flight controllers to correct the alignment of the swashplate is to unregulate the center positions of the swashplate servo horns by moving them from their correct optimal 90-degree position relative to the main shaft. This, since almost all servos are not linear but rotary, then makes the swashplate control asymmetrical on one side with respect to the other side, with different positive versus negative resolutions and thus also with different positive versus negative excursion speeds. The final adjustment is therefore not the optimal one achievable only by leaving the servos at 90° to the main shaft when in the center position and instead lengthening or shortening the links from the servos to the swashplate.
This makes configurations made by Auto Trim decidedly imperfect compared to configurations made manually by varying the lengths of the swashplate servo links.
Implementing this possibility would be extremely simple and fast, however, we want users who fly with our flight control units to fly in the best possible way.
Therefore, for this reason, we prefer that users learn the simple procedures and rules that are minimal and necessary to properly configure their model to achieve the maximum performance achievable with their model and the components used. 

Q 31: I can't get -100 / +100 range with the EdgeTX / OpenTX transmitter.

A: In the MODEL SETUP section set to active the checkbox “Extended Limits”:

Extended Limits with OpenTX:

Brain2 Extended Limits

Extended Limits with recent EdgeTX:

EdgeTX Extended Limits

With radios that have a multiprotocol module (external or internal like RadioMaster) when use Spektrum DSM protocol you ALSO have to set to active the checkbox “Enable max. throw” :

Enable Max. Throw with OpenTX & DSM:

Brain2 Enable Max. Throw

Enable Max Throw with EdgeTX & DSM:

Multi Max Throw

Note: Multiprotocol modules extend the RF signal limits only with the latest firmware. Therefore, check if your multiprotocol module has been updated to the latest available firmware provided by the module manufacturer (minimal version 1.3.3.7).

As far as the ELRS protocol is concerned, one has to choose one of the many configurations that works with “Extended Limits”.
For explanations of what configurations should be used to have Extended Limits, we refer to the appropriate ExpressLRS explanation page:
switch-config

Q 32: Where do I find the instructions for your flight control units?

The instructions are “embedded” in the various Windows, Android, iOS software because they are “dynamic” instructions:
An example: ​depending on the model of Flight Control Unit connected (or selected when using the DEMO mode) and depending on the choices made in the previous steps, the instructions of the next steps and the displayed schemes change automatically.
This is to simplify the setup procedure of our FCUs and to avoid possible mistakes.
If there were to be a paper version of the instructions, just for the hundred different wiring diagrams would take hundred pages and users would struggle to figure out which wiring diagram is the correct one.
Moreover, at each software update, you will not be forced to delete & trash the previous manual, download the new and updated manual to be aligned with the new versions but the instructions embedded in the software will be automatically updated to describe the new features that are added within each software update thus avoiding differences between the various versions of the instructions and software used. By going to the “Download” section of our website, you can download (for free) the installation software for Windows PCs and install it. Once the software is run (even in DEMO mode without any flight control unit connected) on the left of each panel of the simplified setup procedure (Wizard) you can see the instructions.
In some cases in the Wizard, and in the whole ADVANCED section, by positioning the cursor on a parameter (or by placing the finger with the Android / iOS apps) a balloon will appear describing the functioning of the selected parameter.

Q 33: Why at the conclusion of initialization does the swashplate move back and forth in elevator instead of horizontally and the motor won't start?

The forward and backward movements is the motion generated by the new function introduced from firmware 3.4.000 onwards that verifies that the model has not been powered on with a low or not fully charged battery with the risk of discharging the battery completely and damaging it irreparably:

Release notes:
– Software 3.4.000, Firmware 3.4.000 (48°) 09 June 2021
Introduced in the Telemetry section the new “Min V to go (cell num.)” parameter that (optionally) signals by swashplate movement of the elevator if at power on the battery pack is low (instructions in the related balloon) It is set with the “Min V to go (cell)” parameter of the “Telemetry Input” section of panel 12 of the Wizard.As explained in the balloon that appears when you place the cursor on the item (or with the App when you place your finger on this name) the ESC telemetry that measures the battery voltage must be active and correctly working and the number of cells used must be correct.
To disable the function completely, just enter 1 as the number of cells in the battery pack.
If you try to take off the model with low battery by raising the throttle, this function prevents engine start and reminds you of the battery situation by moving the elevator swashplate again, this in case you did not notice the first movement at the end of initialization.
This is repeated three times.
From the fourth time on, the system assumes that you are perfectly aware of what you want to do and will allow you to take off even if the battery is low with the risk of damaging it irreparably.
When this happen, the Event n°112, “Min V to go recognized” is recorded in the Events log.
When the function is unlocked by lowering and raising the throttle repeatedly, event n°70 “Min V to go skipped” is recorded in the Events Log.

Q 34: I have a doubt that the GOV port on my FCU is not reading the engine RPM pulses correctly.

Diagnosing the operation of the GOV port is extremely simple.

Just take the cable supplied with the unit and connect the SRV4 connector and the GOV connector together.

Brain2 GOV Test

Connecting the unit to the PC via USB cable will power it up (no other power supply is needed) and by opening the software and going to the Governor Setup page of the Wizard at the bottom the RPM value will have to be different from zero and constant.

For example, with a tail servo a 560Hz selected servo (560 pulses per second) the GOV port will receive rotation pulses corresponding to 560 * 60 seconds = 33,600 rotations per minute.
With a “Pulses for rotation” value of 3 (default value), the value will be divided by 3 = 11,200
With a “Main gear ratio” value of 8 (default value), the value will then be divided by 8 = 1,400.
1,400 RPM will then be the displayed value for the main rotor.

Brain2 GOV Check

Brain2 GOV Check

Note that the value of the RPMs transmitted telemetrically from the ESC and then converted and displayed in the DIAGNOSTIC section in the real time tab and also transmitted to the receiver who in turn transmits them to the ground to the transmitter, they make a completely different path and are processed by routines completely different from the routines that read the pulses on the GOV port.
It is virtually impossible for either not work. PS: Obviously with Micro Brain2 a differnt kind of cable with two JST connectors is needed. On the other hand, when you are sure that the GOV port is working properly and reads the incoming pulses, this method can also be used to verify that the other ports that provide outgoing pulses to the servos (Throttle, SRV1, SRV2, SRV3) are working properly without the need of checking with other instruments (e.g. oscilloscopes).
Keep in mind that the refresh rates vary from port to port. For example, the default Throttle output is at 50Hz, i.e. 50X60=3.000 pulses per minute that will be divided by the value set in “pulses for rotation” and then further divided by the “Main Gear ratio” value. The SRV1, SRV2, SRV3 servo referencing frequency can be adjusted using the slider in panel 7 “Servo Setup (Output)” of the Wizard.

Q 35: Can I use Brain2 flight control units on models with Flybar?

Yes, you can use Brain2 also on models with mechanical Flybar selecting the “FLYBARRED” icon in panel 10 “Blades size selection” of the Wizard.
With Flybar models, using Brain2 you have the following advantages:
– Proactive Tail Gyroscope
– Proactive Governor for electric and Nitro/gasser
– Autorotation Bailout for electric and Nitro/gasser
– Low latency serial decoding for every receiver brand
– Higher refresh frequencies for fast servos
– 32 bit Swash Mixer
– Automatic Pirouette Compensation
– Cyclic Ring
– Auto Level
– Rescue
– Tail Drag compensation
– Pitch Pump
– External Altimeter input
– Auto diagnosis
– Telemetry
– Quality Of Signal Analysis
– Min V to go
– Flight Logs
– Events
– Vibration analysis
– Integrations with Transmitters
– Fine tuning of parameters via TX Dials
– Component usage timers

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